Pulmonary Hypertension in Neonates

Pulmonary hypertension is a life-threatening syndrome resulting from restricted flow through the pulmonary arterial circulation resulting in increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and ultimately in right heart failure and potentially death. Elevated PVR is also a pre-operative risk factor for morbidities, and the absence of pulmonary vasoreactivity is associated with worse prognosis.
Nitric Oxide gas is currently approved for hypoxic respiratory failure, or HRF, associated with pulmonary hypertension in term and near-term infants (PPHN), which include infants born at a gestational age of at least 34 weeks. HRF is a potentially fatal condition that occurs when a patient’s lungs are unable to deliver sufficient oxygen to the body.
Nitric Oxide for HRF in PPHN is typically administered at the patient’s bedside through a ventilator, in a variety of critical care conditions beyond its approved indication. All current approved systems utilize bulky high pressure cylinders.